A Chronology of Annotated Research Study Summaries
in the Field of Educational Kinesiology (Brain Gym)

The research studies summarized here were submitted to the
Educational Kinesiology Foundation in experimental or anecdotal design.


Academic Papers

Educational Kinesiology, movement, and sensory integration: a review of recent, relevant, neuroscientific literature. Susan J. Diamond, Ph.D. ©1999.
A rare and recent academic effort to link peer-reviewed research findings and concepts from numerous disciplines, including neurophysiology, into an inclusive frame work for a scientific understanding of Educational Kinesiology as a method of benefit to educators. This study includes information on the nervous system; reflexes; hemispheric organization for vision, hearing, and laterality; emotion and asymmetry; and sensory modalities. 28 pages. References, bound with the following two papers, available for $25 US (including postage). (Out of pirnt).


The ADHD controversy: drugs, labels, and stifled potential. Joan Spalding. ©1997. Published in Brain Gym® Journal, Volume XI, No 3, 1997.
A history of ADHD and review of the literature; discussion of the use of the drug Ritalin with ADHD; the politics and results of labeling children; educational alternatives, including Brain Gym.

NLP and the brain: some issue areas, findings, and hypotheses. Susan J. Diamond, Ph.D. ©1996.
A discussion of "process therapies" including tentative links with neural and physiological factors that could explain why these therapies work. Review of research on state-dependent learning, stress and emotion, the role of lateralization and asymmetry in perception, brain organization and handedness, attention, memory, language, hearing, disassociation, etc. 46 pages. (Out of print).

Brain Gym© literature review and study design proposal. Susan J. Diamond, Ph.D. ©1996.
This paper, a research study design project and a literature review, relates the impact of movement on learning to some possible theoretical foundations and accepted theories of stress, exercise, etc. Section one brings in relevant concepts from neuropsychology on anxiety; asymmetry; exercise, arousal, and attention; "state models"; neurological soft signs (behavioral impairments), etc. Includes a useful review of information from relevant fields. Prepared in 1996 for doctoral work at the University of Victoria, BC Canada. Section two offers a review of research on Educational Kinesiology; a review of related research on the relationship between movement and academic learning; development of a proposed research study to expand previous studies; a proposed Brain Gym research program. 58 pages. (Out of Print).

Movement or medication? The alleviation of ADD. Dr. Anka Koelman. ©1994 and 1995. Published in Brain Gym® Journal, Volume XI, No 3, 1997.
A summary of two of Dr. Koelman's articles on ADD, reviewing the symptoms of ADD and discussing effective alternatives, including Educational Kinesiology, Neuro-Linguistic Programming, and Superlearning.

Achter, Xund uerber Kreuz: Edu-Kinestetik in Theorie und Praxis. ©1956. Available in German language only. Published by VAK Publishers, Verlag fuer Angewandte Kinesiologie, Freiburg.
Contributions by nineteen authors, educators, and researchers. Includes teachers' experiences with Educational Kinesiology in the classroom, as well as well-founded empirical studies on the effects of Brain Gym on learning.



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Experimental Research

Group I: True Experimental Research Designs

The Effect of PACE on self-reported anxiety and performance in first-year nursing students. Jan Irving, Ph.D., R.N, © 1995. Published in Brain Gym® Journal, Volume X, No 1, 1996.
This multiple baseline design was completed with twenty-seven first-year nursing students, using three separate groups as controls during the different phases of the nine-week study. The study measured the effects of four Brain Gym activities, making up a six-minute sequence known as the PACE process, on weekly assessments of self-reported anxiety and performance on fourteen technical-motor skill tests. The PACE group experienced a 69.5 percent reduction in self-reported anxiety and an 18.7 percent increase in performance on skill tests, as compared to continued self-reporting of high anxiety and higher failure rate in the control groups not using PACE. Copies available for $35 US (including postage, within the United States).

Effect of Educational Kinesiology on response times of learning disabled students. Guruchiter Kaur Khalsa and Josie M. Sifft. Published in Brain Gym® Magazine as "Effect of Brain Gym on Response Time," Volume IV, No 2, ©1990.
This study was completed with 52 children selected from Special Day classes. The Brain Gym group performed a sequence of activities, while the control group engaged in random movements for about seven minutes. All children were tested for visual response time before and after the movement activities. The results indicated that those children exposed to the Brain Gym movements improved on the response-time task, while those in the control group did not.

Effect of Educational Kinesiology upon simple and four-choice response times. Guruchiter Kaur Khalsa and Josie M. Sifft. © 1988. Published in Brain Gym® Magazine, Volume II, No. 3, 1988.
This study completed with university students compared a control group with two experimental groups, one using only Brain Gym activities, and the other experiencing Dennison Laterality Repatterning and the Brain Gym activities. The results indicated that the Edu-K groups were superior to the control group in their response time to a four-choice visual light display. The repatterned group improved by twice the amount of the Brain Gym-only group.

Academic Publication of Experimental Research

Effect of Educational Kinesiology upon simple response times and choice response times. Josie M. Sifft, Ph.D. and G.C.K. Khalsa, ©1991. Published in Perceptual and Motor Skills, 73, 1011-1015.

Educational Kinesiology: empowering students and athletes through movement. Josie M. Sifft, Ph.D. ©1990.
An overview of Educational Kinesiology, explanation of some of the Brain Gym® activities, and review of the research to date. Available from Education Resources Information Center, or on microfiche (ERIC Document Reproduction Series No. ED 320891

Effect of Educational Kinesiology on static balance of learning disabled students. Published in Perceptual and Motor Skills, 67, 51-54 Khalsa, Guruchiter Kaur, Morris, G.S. Don, and Sifft, Josie M., Ph.D. ©1988.

The effects of Educational Kinesiology upon the static balance of learning disabled boys and girls. G.C.K. Khalsa, and Josie M. Sifft, Ph.D. ©1988. Available from Educational Resources Information Center, or on microfiche (ERIC Document Reproduction Series No. ED 289835).

Group II: Quasi-Experimental Research Designs

Brain Gym® and its effect on reading abilities. Cecilia K. Freeman, M.ED. ©2000.
This study was completed using a nonequivalent control group design. A total of 205 students were assigned to either the Brain Gym or the control group. Throughout the 1998-99 school year, 12 teachers incorporated Brain Gym in the classroom curricula so that the students and teachers did a minimum of 15 minutes of Brain Gym per day. Equal samples of students were randomly selected for the Brain Gym group and the control group who did not use Brain Gym, and their test scores were compared. The results indicated that those children in the Brain Gym group improved their reading abilities, as measured by a standardized test, twice as much as did those in the control group.

The study can be used in these ways:
It can be replicated. 2. It is a model that can be taken to an administrator with a request that Brain Gym be introduced into the school. 3. It includes innovative suggestions on how a classroom teacher can use the Brain Gym activities in the classroom. Copies are available for $20 plus $3.20 shipping in US (a 30% discount, plus postage, for orders of 10 or more). 58 pages. Contact:

Cecilia K. Freeman, M.Ed.
(805) 641-1851

Effects of Educational Kinesiology upon the static balance of learning disabled boys and girls. Guruchiter Kaur Khalsa and Josie M. Sifft. ©1988.
This study was completed with 60 elementary students who were classified as learning disabled. An equal number of boys and girls were divided into three groups: repatterned Edu-K, Edu-K movement, and a control. The results indicated that the Repatterned Edu-K group showed a greater improvement in static balance than the Edu-K movement group, who in turn performed better than the control group. The findings also suggest that Edu-K can be used effectively in a coeducational setting.

Group III: Pre-experimental Research Designs

Individual Brain Gym® work in a learning-assessment lab. Susan J. Stewart, Ph.D. ©1998. Published in Brain Gym® Journal as "Research: Brain Gym in British Columbia Public Schools," Volume XIII, No 1, 1999.
In 1995, Susan Stewart, an educational consultant, worked on a project with children in a public school in British Columbia. The purpose of the project was to determine if Repatterning and Brain Gym® activities would affect students' abilities to relax, coordinate, and cross the body midline in three dimensions. Ms. Stewart noted that the students' coordination improved, and some students' verbal, reading, eye-tracking, and social skills improved as well.

The Effects of Edu-K in a research project with second-graders. Al Milliren, Ed.D., ©1992. Published in Brain Gym® Journal, Volume X, No 2, 1996.
In 1992, South Carolina school counselor Dr. Al Milliren conducted a nonequivalent control group study investigating the impact of Brain Gym® on elementary school students who seemed to have potential yet who experienced difficulties in learning. After being tested for both auditory and visual perception, twelve second-grade students met in small groups twice weekly for five weeks. Each meeting included Brain Gym activities; some also included Edu-K balancing. Post-testing, conducted one month after the groups were concluded, indicated measurable improvements in visual skill performance but inconclusive changes in auditory skills. Dr. Milliren believes that results obtained from this small group might offer some direction for further exploration and research. His observations follow.

Using Brain Gym® for matching pitch. Donna Sewell, ©1992. Published in Brain Gym® Journal as "Field Study on Using Brain Gym for Matching Pitch, 1991-92." Volume VII, No 1 1993.
In 1991 and 1992, Donna Sewell, a Brain Gym® Instructor and elementary and secondary school teacher, conducted two pre-experimental pilot studies to investigate Brain Gym's efficacy in learning to match pitch. The studies were implemented at Taylorville High School in Salt Lake City, Utah, with the cooperation of the chorus teacher, Norm Wendel, and the permission of Dr. Ellis C. Worthen, Associate Director for Fine Arts for Granite School District in Salt Lake City. Participating students ranged in age from fifteen to seventeen years and had already been singing in a school setting for ten years.

Effect of Educational Kinesiology on hearing. Guruchiter Kaur Khalsa and Josie M. Sifft, ©1992. Published in Brain Gym® Magazine, Volume IV, No 3, ©1990.
This study was completed with 16 elementary school teachers who served as their own control. Each teacher was tested on the Pure-Tone audiometer before and after each movement experience. The movement experiences were 10 minutes of random movements about the room or a series of five Brain Gym activities. The results indicated that the hearing of the teachers was better after the Brain Gym activities than after the random movements.

The brain option for hyperactivity, ADD, E.H., Sp.Ed. L.D. and FAS. Carla L. Hannaford. ©1990.
This essay hypothesizes that Brain Gym movements can eliminate or greatly ameliorate the symptoms of hyperactivity, learning disabilities, Attention Deficit Disorder, emotional handicaps, and even Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. A review of current brain literature supports the use of movement to enhance learning. (9 pages.) This research study is summarized in the Educational Kinesiology Foundation Research Packet as The Effects of Brain Gym with Special Ed students grades three through five. (See below)

The effects of Brain Gym with Special Ed. Students grades three though five. Carla Hannaford, M.A. ©1990.
In 1989-1990, Carla Hannaford, M.A., an educator and neurophysiologist, implemented a yearlong one group pre-test/post-test study in the Hawaii School District. Hannaford incorporated Brain Gym® in the classroom with nineteen fifth graders in Special Education. Pre- and post-tests were completed using the Brigance Inventory of Basic Skills. Post-tests showed a one-to-two-year growth for all students on the reading and comprehension testing and growth of one or more years for more than 50 percent of the students on math scores-greater results than might have been expected for Special Education students. Behavior patterns also improved.

Effects of Edu-K on computer-related eye and muscle strain. Joan Spalding, M.S., © 1990. Published in Brain Gym® Magazine, Volume V, No 2, 1991.
In 1990, Joan Spalding, M.S., of Mancato State University, conducted this one-group
pre-test/post-test pilot study in partial fulfillment of the requirements toward her Master's Degree. The purpose of the study was to determine whether Edu-K Brain Gym© and Vision Gym activities have an effect on eye and muscle strain or other physical symptoms generated by use of a computer video display terminal (VDT). The project was conducted over a six-week period. Ten subjects from twenty-nine to fifty years who used the VDT as a principal part of their work (four or more hours daily) punctuated each hour of computer time with a five-minute break for Edu-K movements. Half the subjects were male, half female. Half were entrepreneurs, half salaried employees. Statistically significant results indicated that computer breaks for
Edu-K activities contributed to a lessening of visual and muscle-related stress.

Effects of combined Brain Gym® and mountaineering experiences on teen and pre-teen scholastic achievement. George Gardner and Colleen Carroll-Gardner, ©1989. In 1989, under the supervision of teachers George and Colleen Gardner, preteens and teenagers learned and implemented Brain Gym® for reading, communication, and mountaineering skills in a fourteen-day wilderness program in Colorado. In this one-group, pre- and post-test research design, results from each two-week program suggest that most participants initially performed as much as one grade level below their true potential. After learning and integrating the Brain Gym activities, participants were able to perform at an average level six to eight months higher than their baseline score.

The effects of Edu-K in a remedial summer school program. Helen Cox. ©1989. See also "Options in Health and Education: Developing Sensory Readiness," Brain Gym® Journal, Volume III, No 2, ©1989. In 1989, Helen Cox, Director of the Options in Health and Education Learning Center, and Dr. Al Milliren implemented a one-group pre-test/post-test study measuring the effects of Educational Kinesiology and Char-L Intensive Phonics in a remedial summer school program held at Brimfield Public Grade School in Brimfield, Illinois. The program was funded by a Chapter One Federal Grant. Post-test results on Slosson tests showed a greater increase in math and reading skills than could ordinarily be expected in a summer school program.

Effects of Edu-K on psychometric measures of achievements of Special Ed elementary students. Lark Carroll. ©1988. In 1987-1988, Brain Gym Instructor Lark Carroll supervised this one-group, pre-test/post-test study in a Berkeley, California, public school Special Ed class. The study was funded with a $500 grant from Berkeley Public Education Foundation. The purpose of the study was to determine whether Repatterning and Brain Gym® used over an eight-month period would affect the word recognition, hand-eye coordination, and self-esteem skills of ten students in second and third grade. Results showed greater improvement on the standardized tests than would normally be expected.

Effects of Edu-K in the classroom on beginning reading skills. Dorothy H. L. Carroll, Ed.D. ©1987. Published in Brain Gym® Magazine as "Positive Activities," Volume II, No 2, 1988. In 1987, twenty-two first graders in Pennsylvania, under the supervision of educator Dorothy H. L. Carroll, Ed.D., and classroom teacher Mary Ann Wittle, took part in this eight-week, one-group, pre-test/post-test study. The program consisted of Repatterning in the third and eighth week and about fifteen minutes a day of Brain Gym® activities. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the Edu-K techniques would affect students' recognition and reproduction of letters or numbers, their auditory and visual discrimination of sounds and words, or their ability to match and reproduce designs as assessed by standardized tests. The results indicated that nearly all of the children who made errors on the pre-tests improved their performances on those same tests ten weeks later.

A longitudinal perspective on Edu-K outcomes with Special Ed students in Australia.
Peter Whetton. ©1987.
In 1986-87, Peter Whetton, Senior Special Education instructor at Christies Beach High School in Christies Beach, Australia, implemented this informal project over three terms. The purpose of the project was to determine whether the inclusion of Brain Gym movements would have an effect on the behavior, coordination, attention span, or academic skills of high school students in a Special Education classroom. In Part One of the study, twelve students were divided into four groups: the Brain Gym group or one of three control groups. The results showed that the Brain Gym group improved markedly in all areas; the two control groups using movement showed small areas of improvement; the control group with no movement showed no improvement. In Part Two of the study, all students chose to do only Brain Gym for the nine-week period. Results showed continued improvements. In Part Three, Brain Gym was not used in the classroom for the eight-week period. Results showed that skills and behaviors declined until Brain Gym was reintroduced. A four-year longitudinal retrospective of participants is included, showing an average age growth of four to five years in reading, math, and spelling, and more than seven years' growth in comprehension.

Descriptive Research

Group I: Qualitative Research Designs

Results of a Brain Gym course at an educational program for underprivileged children in Bangladesh. Peter Winkelmann, © 2000.
In 1999, 10 UCEP (Underprivileged Children Educational Program) teachers completed their Brain Gym® training in Switzerland with instructor Perer Winkelmann. In February of the next year some of these trainees taught a three-day course for twenty school teachers in Drake, Bangladesh. Two months after the course, a questionaire was sent out to participants. Fifteen of the twenty questionaires were returned, yielding positive results in the areas of communication, behavior, academic performance, and health.

Brain Gym in a program for teachers and health staff, in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Peter Winkelmann. © 2000.
Elisabeth Demuth, a trained nurse and certified Brain Gym instructor, works for a hospital-based primary healthcare project in the Province of North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Brain Gym courses have been incorporated into the training component of the project as part of its program for teachers and health staff in the province. Those courses are sold on a cost-recovering basis, with expenditure for overhead and promotion being covered by the Swiss funding agency. SOAM, as part of their regular support to this project. Mrs. Demuth has taught Brain Gym courses to more than 100 people in the province-mostly kindergarten and primary school teachers. This program is being positively received by the Implementing organization, GMIM Health Services, and by various governmental educational institutions. Questionaires sent to kindergarten teachers, six months after they had completed an introductory course, yielded the following information: All participants who responded to the survey used Brain Gym in class, either daily or two to three times per week; the following personal improvements were reported: an increase in joy at work, improved concentration, improved relations between teachers and children, improved working atmosphere; many participants reported that the performance of the children had increased, in particular: motor skills, learning by heart of songs and poems, concentration, speed in solving puzzles; all teachers would like to do an advanced course in Brain Gym.

Using Brain Gym with hearing impaired children in Flores, East Indonesia. Peter Winkelmann. © 1999. Beginning in 1997, I practiced Brain Gym (which we also refer to as Learning Gymestics) once a week with a group of twenty deaf children at the Handicapped Children's Home (Skolah Luar Blasa, SLB), Ruteng, Wastflores, for one and one half years. Besides noticing that the exercises were popular with the children, I observed that many of them made remarkable progress in several skills. When comparing the children's abilities in mathematics, reading, writing, and sports before and after practicing Brain Gym, measurable improvements were evident, which I have documented through a number of empirical surveys.

A year of Learning Gymnastics (Brain Gym) at Dorkes Kindergarten, North Sulewesi. Peter Winkelmann. © 1998. Dorkes Kindergarten in Tornohon has thirty children between the ages of five and six. It has three staff members, led by Mrs. Frida Ledi Lengkong. Her report of a year of regular Learning Gymnastics, consisting of fifteen-minute sessions in the morning and brief breaks during lessons is a follows: teaching and learning have become more animated and the concentration and participation of the children have improved; during the course of the year, the children learned by heart a record sixty songs and two plays; verbal expression has improved and readiness to ask questions has increased - a child who was to have been referred to a speech therapist improved so much that therapy became unnecessary; when the class moved on to primary school, their new teacher remarked on the increased vitality of Mrs. Lengkong's children.

Brain Gym for preschoolers in a Headstart program. Gail Dennison. ©1996. In 1996 Gail Dennison, educator and co-author of the Brain Gym® program, and Diane Lehman, Brain Gym Instructor and nutritional consultant to Ventura County Headstart schools, implemented a five-week experimental Brain Gym program with fifteen preschoolers. The intent of the program was to support the development of readiness skills of posture and coordination and to help the children develop eye-teaming and listening skills for the near-point tasks of drawing, reading, and writing. Significant observational and anecdotal data were realized from the study. Results indicated many improvements for individual students as well as their teachers, suggesting areas for further study.

Effects of Brain Gym® in a district-wide Canadian field study. Nancy McGovern, P.T. ©1991.
In June of 1991, Nancy McGovern, District Physiotherapist for the Department of Special Services, implemented a qualitative small group study as a pilot program in School District twenty-four, Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada. The purpose of this study was to determine the possible inclusion of Brain Gym® movements in the curriculum for learning-disabled students. Originally, nine schools twelve teachers, fifteen key students and three "Sensory-Motor" P.E. groups were involved. Interest in this program eventually generated the involvement of one additional school, twenty-one teachers and twelve key students. Approximately 600 total students in ten schools were involved. Perceptual tests, parents feedback and teachers and students observations comprised the evaluation. Results indicated many improvements for individual students and for whole classes; suggested elements to consider further in terms of implementation were presented.

The effects of Edu-K on academic and social skills of high school students in Israel.
Jeanette Primost. ©1990. Published in Brain Gym® Magazine, Volume VI, No 1, 1992.
In 1989 and 1990, Jeanette Primost used Edu-K with twelve high school students in Tel-Chai, Israel. She saw each pupil weekly for six or more sessions. The first session began with a Wonder Balance for eyes, ears, writing, and whole-body movement. She let the students direct her as to what they needed, using the Edu-K balance format from both basic and In-Depth processes. This qualitative, small-group report was coauthored by Jeanette and Chana Shar'abi, head of the learning center, who gathered data on students' learning skills, motivations, and personal feelings from exams, teachers, parents, and students themselves. Results indicated that seven pupils out of twelve benefited noticeably.

Group II: Correlational Research Designs

The influence of Brain Gym® movements on the work of muscles and on dynamics and posture reflexes. Svetlana K. Masgutova, Ph.D., © 1999. See also "Edu-K and Vigotsky's Mind-Body Psychology," Brain Gym® Journal, Volume X, No 3, 1996; "Educational Kinesiology in Russia: The Possibilities in Education and in Psychological Practice," Volume IX, No 3, 1996; and "Brain Gym® in Russia: Applications in Psychological Practice."
This descriptive study was designed to identify the correlation between infant reflexes, specific muscle groups, specific Brain Gym activities, and the Three Dimensions of learning, as identified by Paul and Gail Dennison. The high correlation identified in a population of 522 children "at risk" suggests the need for educators to address the physical development of children, enabling them to integrate the infant reflexes and brain dimensions through brain-integration technology such as the Brain Gym activities.

Correlates of Edu-K repatterning pre-checks with "at-risk" populations. Robert Eyestone
From 1987-1990,. Robert Eyestone, M.S., Educational Psychologist with the Weber County Mental Health Department, Weber, Utah, conducted three studies using the Edu-K Repatterning Pre-Checks to determine whether specific populations were using one-sided or cross lateral processing of visual and/or motor information. In the 1987-88 study, 257 of 270 participants tested from a population defined as "at risk" tested one-sided; 37 of 310 participants in the group not defined as at risk tested one-sided. In the 1988-89 study, 539 of 552 participants from at risk populations tested as one-sided processors. In the 1989-90 study, 202 of 204 participants from at risk populations tested as one-sided; 1 of 97 participants in the group not defined as at risk tested one-sided. This study was conducted specifically for the purpose of measuring the effectiveness of the screening device to determine ease of processing. Highly significant correlates were found between those tested as using homolateral processing and those in Resource, Handicapped or Juvenile Detention Centers. Results suggest that the Dennison test for laterality may be an effective tool for screening individuals for further testing.

Group III: Summary Research Designs

Impact of Brain Gym processes on sales of insurance. Robert Donovan. ©1993.
In 1993, the South Carolina Farm Bureau Insurance Company held an open enrollment for the Switched on Selling (SOS) seminar, and about one-third of the sales force elected to participate. Participants in the one-day course learned the Brain Gym® movements, experienced Dennison Laterality Repatterning, and explored the applications of these processes to specific aspects of the selling process. For 120 days following the seminar, the company tracked results for the SOS group as well as for those salespeople who did not attend the seminar. The results suggest that the SOS salespeople made a significant change in their performance. The SOS group increased the number of applications received for insurance policies by 39 percent, as compared to no increase for the control group. Similarly, the premiums earned by the SOS group went up 101 percent, as compared to only a 30 percent increase for the non-SOS group.

The results of preliminary and follow-up questionnaires administered to salespersons attending Switched-On Selling seminars. Jerry V. Teplitz, JD, Ph.D. ©1992.
This study, completed in 1992, analyzed the attitudinal changes of participants who attended a one-day Switched-On Selling seminar toward various elements of the sales process. Participants completed a questionnaire at the beginning of the class and again at the end of the session. The seminar did not teach technique; rather, it covered all aspects of the selling process, such as prospecting, presenting, and follow-up, and used preselected Brain Gym® activities. Eighteen questions were asked of each of the 149 participants. The two questions that revealed the highest level of change were "I handle rejection well" and "It is easy for me to make cold calls using the telephone." On the question "I handle rejection well," the number of salespersons in disagreement with this at the beginning of the seminar dropped from 56% to only 8% at the conclusion of the seminar. On the question "It is easy for me to make cold calls using the telephone," on the prequestionnaire only 42% agreed or strongly agreed with this question. At the end of the seminar, 90% responded "agree" or "strongly agree." The results indicated that Switched-On Selling could have a very positive impact on the attitudes of salespeople. What felt difficult at the beginning of the day felt easier to do at the end of the seminar.

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