Diamond, Ph.D. ©1999. Educational Kinesiology, movement, and sensory integration: a
review of recent, relevant, neuroscientific literature.
A rare and recent academic effort to link peer-reviewed research
findings and concepts from numerous disciplines, including
neurophysiology, into an inclusive frame work for a scientific
understanding of Educational Kinesiology as a method of benefit to
educators. This study includes information on the nervous system;
reflexes; hemispheric organization for vision, hearing, and laterality;
emotion and asymmetry; and sensory modalities. 28 pages. References,
bound with the following two papers, available for $25 US (including
postage). (Out of pirnt).
Joan Spalding. ©1997. Published in Brain Gym® Journal, Volume XI, No 3,
1997. The ADHD controversy: drugs, labels, and stifled potential.
A history of ADHD and review of the literature; discussion of the use of
the drug Ritalin with ADHD; the politics and results of labeling
children; educational alternatives, including Brain Gym.
Susan J. Diamond, Ph.D. ©1996. NLP and the brain: some issue areas, findings, and hypotheses.
A discussion of "process therapies" including tentative links with
neural and physiological factors that could explain why these therapies
work. Review of research on state-dependent learning, stress and
emotion, the role of lateralization and asymmetry in perception, brain
organization and handedness, attention, memory, language, hearing,
disassociation, etc. 46 pages. (Out of print).
Susan J. Diamond, Ph.D. ©1996. Brain Gym© literature review and study design proposal.
This paper, a research study design project and a literature review,
relates the impact of movement on learning to some possible theoretical
foundations and accepted theories of stress, exercise, etc. Section one
brings in relevant concepts from neuropsychology on anxiety; asymmetry;
exercise, arousal, and attention; "state models"; neurological soft
signs (behavioral impairments), etc. Includes a useful review of
information from relevant fields. Prepared in 1996 for doctoral work at
the University of Victoria, BC Canada. Section two offers a review of
research on Educational Kinesiology; a review of related research on the
relationship between movement and academic learning; development of a
proposed research study to expand previous studies; a proposed Brain Gym
research program. 58 pages. (Out of Print). Dr.
Anka Koelman. ©1994 and 1995. Published in Brain Gym® Journal, Volume
XI, No 3, 1997. Movement or medication? The alleviation of ADD.
A summary of two of Dr. Koelman's articles on ADD, reviewing the
symptoms of ADD and discussing effective alternatives, including
Educational Kinesiology, Neuro-Linguistic Programming, and Superlearning.
©1956. Available in German language only. Published by VAK Publishers,
Verlag fuer Angewandte Kinesiologie, Freiburg. Achter, Xund uerber Kreuz: Edu-Kinestetik in Theorie und Praxis.
Contributions by nineteen authors, educators, and researchers. Includes
teachers' experiences with Educational Kinesiology in the classroom, as
well as well-founded empirical studies on the effects of Brain Gym on
Group I: True Experimental Research Designs
Jan Irving, Ph.D., R.N, © 1995.
Published in Brain Gym® Journal, Volume X, No 1, 1996. The Effect of PACE on self-reported anxiety and performance in
first-year nursing students.
This multiple baseline design was completed with twenty-seven first-year
nursing students, using three separate groups as controls during the
different phases of the nine-week study. The study measured the effects
of four Brain Gym activities, making up a six-minute sequence known as
the PACE process, on weekly assessments of self-reported anxiety and
performance on fourteen technical-motor skill tests. The PACE group
experienced a 69.5 percent reduction in self-reported anxiety and an
18.7 percent increase in performance on skill tests, as compared to
continued self-reporting of high anxiety and higher failure rate in the
control groups not using PACE. Copies available for $35 US (including
postage, within the United States).
Guruchiter Kaur Khalsa and Josie M. Sifft.
Published in Brain Gym® Magazine as "Effect of Brain Gym on Response
Time," Volume IV, No 2, ©1990. Effect of Educational Kinesiology on response times of learning
This study was completed with 52 children selected from Special Day
classes. The Brain Gym group performed a sequence of activities, while
the control group engaged in random movements for about seven minutes.
All children were tested for visual response time before and after the
movement activities. The results indicated that those children exposed
to the Brain Gym movements improved on the response-time task, while
those in the control group did not.
Guruchiter Kaur Khalsa and Josie M. Sifft. ©
1988. Published in Brain Gym® Magazine, Volume II, No. 3, 1988. Effect of Educational Kinesiology upon simple and four-choice
This study completed with university students compared a control group
with two experimental groups, one using only Brain Gym activities, and
the other experiencing Dennison Laterality Repatterning and the Brain
Gym activities. The results indicated that the Edu-K groups were
superior to the control group in their response time to a four-choice
visual light display. The repatterned group improved by twice the amount
of the Brain Gym-only group.
Academic Publication of Experimental Research
Josie M. Sifft, Ph.D. and G.C.K. Khalsa,
©1991. Published in Perceptual and Motor Skills, 73, 1011-1015. Effect of Educational Kinesiology upon simple response times and
choice response times.
Josie M. Sifft, Ph.D. ©1990. Educational Kinesiology: empowering students and athletes through
An overview of Educational Kinesiology, explanation of some of the Brain
Gym® activities, and review of the research to date. Available from
Education Resources Information Center, or on microfiche (ERIC Document
Reproduction Series No. ED 320891
Published in Perceptual and Motor Skills, 67,
51-54 Khalsa, Guruchiter Kaur, Morris, G.S. Don, and Sifft, Josie M.,
Ph.D. ©1988. Effect of Educational Kinesiology on static balance of learning
G.C.K. Khalsa, and Josie M.
Sifft, Ph.D. ©1988. Available from Educational Resources Information
Center, or on microfiche (ERIC Document Reproduction Series No. ED
289835). The effects of Educational Kinesiology upon the static balance of
learning disabled boys and girls.
Group II: Quasi-Experimental Research Designs
Freeman, M.ED. ©2000. Brain Gym® and its effect on reading abilities.
This study was completed using a nonequivalent control group design. A
total of 205 students were assigned to either the Brain Gym or the
control group. Throughout the 1998-99 school year, 12 teachers
incorporated Brain Gym in the classroom curricula so that the students
and teachers did a minimum of 15 minutes of Brain Gym per day. Equal
samples of students were randomly selected for the Brain Gym group and
the control group who did not use Brain Gym, and their test scores were
compared. The results indicated that those children in the Brain Gym
group improved their reading abilities, as measured by a standardized
test, twice as much as did those in the control group.
The study can be used in these ways:
It can be replicated. 2. It is a model that can be taken to an
administrator with a request that Brain Gym be introduced into the
school. 3. It includes innovative suggestions on how a classroom teacher
can use the Brain Gym activities in the classroom. Copies are available
for $20 plus $3.20 shipping in US (a 30% discount, plus postage, for
orders of 10 or more). 58 pages. Contact:
Cecilia K. Freeman, M.Ed.
Guruchiter Kaur Khalsa and
Josie M. Sifft. ©1988. Effects of Educational Kinesiology upon the static balance of
learning disabled boys and girls.
This study was completed with 60 elementary students who were classified
as learning disabled. An equal number of boys and girls were divided
into three groups: repatterned Edu-K, Edu-K movement, and a control. The
results indicated that the Repatterned Edu-K group showed a greater
improvement in static balance than the Edu-K movement group, who in turn
performed better than the control group. The findings also suggest that
Edu-K can be used effectively in a coeducational setting.
Group III: Pre-experimental Research Designs
Susan J. Stewart, Ph.D. ©1998. Published in Brain Gym® Journal as
"Research: Brain Gym in British Columbia Public Schools," Volume XIII,
No 1, 1999. Individual Brain Gym® work in a learning-assessment lab.
In 1995, Susan Stewart, an educational consultant, worked on a project
with children in a public school in British Columbia. The purpose of the
project was to determine if Repatterning and Brain Gym® activities would
affect students' abilities to relax, coordinate, and cross the body
midline in three dimensions. Ms. Stewart noted that the students'
coordination improved, and some students' verbal, reading, eye-tracking,
and social skills improved as well.
Al Milliren, Ed.D., ©1992. Published in Brain Gym® Journal, Volume X, No
2, 1996. The Effects of Edu-K in a research project with second-graders.
In 1992, South Carolina school counselor Dr. Al Milliren conducted a
nonequivalent control group study investigating the impact of Brain Gym®
on elementary school students who seemed to have potential yet who
experienced difficulties in learning. After being tested for both
auditory and visual perception, twelve second-grade students met in
small groups twice weekly for five weeks. Each meeting included Brain
Gym activities; some also included Edu-K balancing. Post-testing,
conducted one month after the groups were concluded, indicated
measurable improvements in visual skill performance but inconclusive
changes in auditory skills. Dr. Milliren believes that results obtained
from this small group might offer some direction for further exploration
and research. His observations follow.
Donna Sewell, ©1992.
Published in Brain Gym® Journal as "Field Study on Using Brain Gym for
Matching Pitch, 1991-92." Volume VII, No 1 1993. Using Brain Gym® for matching pitch.
In 1991 and 1992, Donna Sewell, a Brain Gym® Instructor and elementary
and secondary school teacher, conducted two pre-experimental pilot
studies to investigate Brain Gym's efficacy in learning to match pitch.
The studies were implemented at Taylorville High School in Salt Lake
City, Utah, with the cooperation of the chorus teacher, Norm Wendel, and
the permission of Dr. Ellis C. Worthen, Associate Director for Fine Arts
for Granite School District in Salt Lake City. Participating students
ranged in age from fifteen to seventeen years and had already been
singing in a school setting for ten years.
Kaur Khalsa and Josie M. Sifft, ©1992. Published in Brain Gym® Magazine,
Volume IV, No 3, ©1990. Effect of Educational Kinesiology on hearing.
This study was completed with 16 elementary school teachers who served
as their own control. Each teacher was tested on the Pure-Tone
audiometer before and after each movement experience. The movement
experiences were 10 minutes of random movements about the room or a
series of five Brain Gym activities. The results indicated that the
hearing of the teachers was better after the Brain Gym activities than
after the random movements.
Carla L. Hannaford. ©1990. The brain option for hyperactivity, ADD, E.H., Sp.Ed. L.D. and FAS.
This essay hypothesizes that Brain Gym movements can eliminate or
greatly ameliorate the symptoms of hyperactivity, learning disabilities,
Attention Deficit Disorder, emotional handicaps, and even Fetal Alcohol
Syndrome. A review of current brain literature supports the use of
movement to enhance learning. (9 pages.) This research study is
summarized in the Educational Kinesiology Foundation Research Packet as
The Effects of Brain Gym with Special Ed students grades three through
five. (See below)
Carla Hannaford, M.A. ©1990. The effects of Brain Gym with Special Ed. Students grades three
In 1989-1990, Carla Hannaford, M.A., an educator and neurophysiologist,
implemented a yearlong one group pre-test/post-test study in the Hawaii
School District. Hannaford incorporated Brain Gym® in the classroom with
nineteen fifth graders in Special Education. Pre- and post-tests were
completed using the Brigance Inventory of Basic Skills. Post-tests
showed a one-to-two-year growth for all students on the reading and
comprehension testing and growth of one or more years for more than 50
percent of the students on math scores-greater results than might have
been expected for Special Education students. Behavior patterns also
Joan Spalding, M.S., © 1990. Published in Brain Gym® Magazine, Volume V,
No 2, 1991. Effects of Edu-K on computer-related eye and muscle strain.
In 1990, Joan Spalding, M.S., of Mancato State University, conducted
pre-test/post-test pilot study in partial fulfillment of the
requirements toward her Master's Degree. The purpose of the study was to
determine whether Edu-K Brain Gym© and Vision Gym activities have an
effect on eye and muscle strain or other physical symptoms generated by
use of a computer video display terminal (VDT). The project was
conducted over a six-week period. Ten subjects from twenty-nine to fifty
years who used the VDT as a principal part of their work (four or more
hours daily) punctuated each hour of computer time with a five-minute
break for Edu-K movements. Half the subjects were male, half female.
Half were entrepreneurs, half salaried employees. Statistically
significant results indicated that computer breaks for
Edu-K activities contributed to a lessening of visual and muscle-related
George Gardner and
Colleen Carroll-Gardner, ©1989. In 1989, under the supervision of
teachers George and Colleen Gardner, preteens and teenagers learned and
implemented Brain Gym® for reading, communication, and mountaineering
skills in a fourteen-day wilderness program in Colorado. In this
one-group, pre- and post-test research design, results from each
two-week program suggest that most participants initially performed as
much as one grade level below their true potential. After learning and
integrating the Brain Gym activities, participants were able to perform
at an average level six to eight months higher than their baseline
score. Effects of combined Brain Gym® and mountaineering experiences on
teen and pre-teen scholastic achievement.
Helen Cox. ©1989. See also "Options in Health and Education: Developing
Sensory Readiness," Brain Gym® Journal, Volume III, No 2, ©1989. In
1989, Helen Cox, Director of the Options in Health and Education
Learning Center, and Dr. Al Milliren implemented a one-group
pre-test/post-test study measuring the effects of Educational
Kinesiology and Char-L Intensive Phonics in a remedial summer school
program held at Brimfield Public Grade School in Brimfield, Illinois.
The program was funded by a Chapter One Federal Grant. Post-test results
on Slosson tests showed a greater increase in math and reading skills
than could ordinarily be expected in a summer school program. The effects of Edu-K in a remedial summer school program.
Lark Carroll. ©1988. In
1987-1988, Brain Gym Instructor Lark Carroll supervised this one-group,
pre-test/post-test study in a Berkeley, California, public school
Special Ed class. The study was funded with a $500 grant from Berkeley
Public Education Foundation. The purpose of the study was to determine
whether Repatterning and Brain Gym® used over an eight-month period
would affect the word recognition, hand-eye coordination, and
self-esteem skills of ten students in second and third grade. Results
showed greater improvement on the standardized tests than would normally
be expected. Effects of Edu-K on psychometric measures of achievements of
Special Ed elementary students.
Dorothy H. L. Carroll, Ed.D. ©1987. Published in Brain Gym® Magazine as
"Positive Activities," Volume II, No 2, 1988. In 1987, twenty-two first
graders in Pennsylvania, under the supervision of educator Dorothy H. L.
Carroll, Ed.D., and classroom teacher Mary Ann Wittle, took part in this
eight-week, one-group, pre-test/post-test study. The program consisted
of Repatterning in the third and eighth week and about fifteen minutes a
day of Brain Gym® activities. The purpose of this study was to determine
whether the Edu-K techniques would affect students' recognition and
reproduction of letters or numbers, their auditory and visual
discrimination of sounds and words, or their ability to match and
reproduce designs as assessed by standardized tests. The results
indicated that nearly all of the children who made errors on the
pre-tests improved their performances on those same tests ten weeks
later. Effects of Edu-K in the classroom on beginning reading skills.
A longitudinal perspective on Edu-K outcomes with Special Ed
students in Australia.
Peter Whetton. ©1987.
In 1986-87, Peter Whetton, Senior Special Education instructor at
Christies Beach High School in Christies Beach, Australia, implemented
this informal project over three terms. The purpose of the project was
to determine whether the inclusion of Brain Gym movements would have an
effect on the behavior, coordination, attention span, or academic skills
of high school students in a Special Education classroom. In Part One of
the study, twelve students were divided into four groups: the Brain Gym
group or one of three control groups. The results showed that the Brain
Gym group improved markedly in all areas; the two control groups using
movement showed small areas of improvement; the control group with no
movement showed no improvement. In Part Two of the study, all students
chose to do only Brain Gym for the nine-week period. Results showed
continued improvements. In Part Three, Brain Gym was not used in the
classroom for the eight-week period. Results showed that skills and
behaviors declined until Brain Gym was reintroduced. A four-year
longitudinal retrospective of participants is included, showing an
average age growth of four to five years in reading, math, and spelling,
and more than seven years' growth in comprehension.
Group I: Qualitative Research Designs
Peter Winkelmann, ©
2000. Results of a Brain Gym course at an educational program for
underprivileged children in Bangladesh.
In 1999, 10 UCEP (Underprivileged Children Educational Program) teachers
completed their Brain Gym® training in Switzerland with instructor Perer
Winkelmann. In February of the next year some of these trainees taught a
three-day course for twenty school teachers in Drake, Bangladesh. Two
months after the course, a questionaire was sent out to participants.
Fifteen of the twenty questionaires were returned, yielding positive
results in the areas of communication, behavior, academic performance,
Peter Winkelmann. © 2000. Brain Gym in a program for teachers and health staff, in North
Elisabeth Demuth, a trained nurse and certified Brain Gym instructor,
works for a hospital-based primary healthcare project in the Province of
North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Brain Gym courses have been incorporated into
the training component of the project as part of its program for
teachers and health staff in the province. Those courses are sold on a
cost-recovering basis, with expenditure for overhead and promotion being
covered by the Swiss funding agency. SOAM, as part of their regular
support to this project. Mrs. Demuth has taught Brain Gym courses to
more than 100 people in the province-mostly kindergarten and primary
school teachers. This program is being positively received by the
Implementing organization, GMIM Health Services, and by various
governmental educational institutions. Questionaires sent to
kindergarten teachers, six months after they had completed an
introductory course, yielded the following information: All participants
who responded to the survey used Brain Gym in class, either daily or two
to three times per week; the following personal improvements were
reported: an increase in joy at work, improved concentration, improved
relations between teachers and children, improved working atmosphere;
many participants reported that the performance of the children had
increased, in particular: motor skills, learning by heart of songs and
poems, concentration, speed in solving puzzles; all teachers would like
to do an advanced course in Brain Gym.
Peter Winkelmann. © 1999. Beginning in 1997, I
practiced Brain Gym (which we also refer to as Learning Gymestics) once
a week with a group of twenty deaf children at the Handicapped
Children's Home (Skolah Luar Blasa, SLB), Ruteng, Wastflores, for one
and one half years. Besides noticing that the exercises were popular
with the children, I observed that many of them made remarkable progress
in several skills. When comparing the children's abilities in
mathematics, reading, writing, and sports before and after practicing
Brain Gym, measurable improvements were evident, which I have documented
through a number of empirical surveys. Using Brain Gym with hearing impaired children in Flores, East
Peter Winkelmann. © 1998. Dorkes Kindergarten in
Tornohon has thirty children between the ages of five and six. It has
three staff members, led by Mrs. Frida Ledi Lengkong. Her report of a
year of regular Learning Gymnastics, consisting of fifteen-minute
sessions in the morning and brief breaks during lessons is a follows:
teaching and learning have become more animated and the concentration
and participation of the children have improved; during the course of
the year, the children learned by heart a record sixty songs and two
plays; verbal expression has improved and readiness to ask questions has
increased - a child who was to have been referred to a speech therapist
improved so much that therapy became unnecessary; when the class moved
on to primary school, their new teacher remarked on the increased
vitality of Mrs. Lengkong's children. A year of Learning Gymnastics (Brain Gym) at Dorkes Kindergarten,
Dennison. ©1996. In 1996 Gail Dennison, educator and co-author of the
Brain Gym® program, and Diane Lehman, Brain Gym Instructor and
nutritional consultant to Ventura County Headstart schools, implemented
a five-week experimental Brain Gym program with fifteen preschoolers.
The intent of the program was to support the development of readiness
skills of posture and coordination and to help the children develop
eye-teaming and listening skills for the near-point tasks of drawing,
reading, and writing. Significant observational and anecdotal data were
realized from the study. Results indicated many improvements for
individual students as well as their teachers, suggesting areas for
further study. Brain Gym for preschoolers in a Headstart program.
Nancy McGovern, P.T. ©1991. Effects of Brain Gym® in a district-wide Canadian field study.
In June of 1991, Nancy McGovern, District Physiotherapist for the
Department of Special Services, implemented a qualitative small group
study as a pilot program in School District twenty-four, Kamloops,
British Columbia, Canada. The purpose of this study was to determine the
possible inclusion of Brain Gym® movements in the curriculum for
learning-disabled students. Originally, nine schools twelve teachers,
fifteen key students and three "Sensory-Motor" P.E. groups were
involved. Interest in this program eventually generated the involvement
of one additional school, twenty-one teachers and twelve key students.
Approximately 600 total students in ten schools were involved.
Perceptual tests, parents feedback and teachers and students
observations comprised the evaluation. Results indicated many
improvements for individual students and for whole classes; suggested
elements to consider further in terms of implementation were presented.
The effects of Edu-K on academic and social skills of high school
students in Israel.
Jeanette Primost. ©1990. Published in Brain Gym® Magazine, Volume VI, No
In 1989 and 1990, Jeanette Primost used Edu-K with twelve high school
students in Tel-Chai, Israel. She saw each pupil weekly for six or more
sessions. The first session began with a Wonder Balance for eyes, ears,
writing, and whole-body movement. She let the students direct her as to
what they needed, using the Edu-K balance format from both basic and
In-Depth processes. This qualitative, small-group report was coauthored
by Jeanette and Chana Shar'abi, head of the learning center, who
gathered data on students' learning skills, motivations, and personal
feelings from exams, teachers, parents, and students themselves. Results
indicated that seven pupils out of twelve benefited noticeably.
Group II: Correlational Research Designs
Svetlana K. Masgutova, Ph.D.,
© 1999. See also "Edu-K and Vigotsky's Mind-Body Psychology," Brain Gym®
Journal, Volume X, No 3, 1996; "Educational Kinesiology in Russia: The
Possibilities in Education and in Psychological Practice," Volume IX, No
3, 1996; and "Brain Gym® in Russia: Applications in Psychological
Practice." The influence of Brain Gym® movements on the work of muscles and
on dynamics and posture reflexes.
This descriptive study was designed to identify the correlation between
infant reflexes, specific muscle groups, specific Brain Gym activities,
and the Three Dimensions of learning, as identified by Paul and Gail
Dennison. The high correlation identified in a population of 522
children "at risk" suggests the need for educators to address the
physical development of children, enabling them to integrate the infant
reflexes and brain dimensions through brain-integration technology such
as the Brain Gym activities.
Robert Eyestone Correlates of Edu-K repatterning pre-checks with "at-risk"
From 1987-1990,. Robert Eyestone, M.S., Educational Psychologist with
the Weber County Mental Health Department, Weber, Utah, conducted three
studies using the Edu-K Repatterning Pre-Checks to determine whether
specific populations were using one-sided or cross lateral processing of
visual and/or motor information. In the 1987-88 study, 257 of 270
participants tested from a population defined as "at risk" tested
one-sided; 37 of 310 participants in the group not defined as at risk
tested one-sided. In the 1988-89 study, 539 of 552 participants from at
risk populations tested as one-sided processors. In the 1989-90 study,
202 of 204 participants from at risk populations tested as one-sided; 1
of 97 participants in the group not defined as at risk tested one-sided.
This study was conducted specifically for the purpose of measuring the
effectiveness of the screening device to determine ease of processing.
Highly significant correlates were found between those tested as using
homolateral processing and those in Resource, Handicapped or Juvenile
Detention Centers. Results suggest that the Dennison test for laterality
may be an effective tool for screening individuals for further testing.
Group III: Summary Research Designs
Robert Donovan. ©1993. Impact of Brain Gym processes on sales of insurance.
In 1993, the South Carolina Farm Bureau Insurance Company held an open
enrollment for the Switched on Selling (SOS) seminar, and about
one-third of the sales force elected to participate. Participants in the
one-day course learned the Brain Gym® movements, experienced Dennison
Laterality Repatterning, and explored the applications of these
processes to specific aspects of the selling process. For 120 days
following the seminar, the company tracked results for the SOS group as
well as for those salespeople who did not attend the seminar. The
results suggest that the SOS salespeople made a significant change in
their performance. The SOS group increased the number of applications
received for insurance policies by 39 percent, as compared to no
increase for the control group. Similarly, the premiums earned by the
SOS group went up 101 percent, as compared to only a 30 percent increase
for the non-SOS group.
Jerry V. Teplitz, JD, Ph.D. ©1992. The results of preliminary and follow-up questionnaires
administered to salespersons attending Switched-On Selling seminars.
This study, completed in 1992, analyzed the attitudinal changes of
participants who attended a one-day Switched-On Selling seminar toward
various elements of the sales process. Participants completed a
questionnaire at the beginning of the class and again at the end of the
session. The seminar did not teach technique; rather, it covered all
aspects of the selling process, such as prospecting, presenting, and
follow-up, and used preselected Brain Gym® activities. Eighteen
questions were asked of each of the 149 participants. The two questions
that revealed the highest level of change were "I handle rejection well"
and "It is easy for me to make cold calls using the telephone." On the
question "I handle rejection well," the number of salespersons in
disagreement with this at the beginning of the seminar dropped from 56%
to only 8% at the conclusion of the seminar. On the question "It is easy
for me to make cold calls using the telephone," on the prequestionnaire
only 42% agreed or strongly agreed with this question. At the end of the
seminar, 90% responded "agree" or "strongly agree." The results
indicated that Switched-On Selling could have a very positive impact on
the attitudes of salespeople. What felt difficult at the beginning of
the day felt easier to do at the end of the seminar.